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Modern slavery - the worst form of forced labour - continues to be a major global issue. Despite increased attention from policy makers, academia and the media, very little has changed for victims and potential victims across the globe. Seefar is dedicated to conducting robust research and implementing innovative programmes that can reduce the vulnerability of those at greatest risk.


This report:
  • examines the experiences of migrant domestic workers in South-East Asia;
  • compares (where possible) recruitment processes and working conditions for female migrant domestic workers based on two rounds of fieldwork conducted in 2016 and 2019 across Singapore, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and Indonesia;
  • follows the process of recruitment, migration, work, and return from the perspective of over 3,000 current, future, and former female migrant domestic workers;
  • analyses the evolution of legal frameworks in countries of origin and destination against the real-lived experiences of respondents.